A unique technology called inverted cylindrical magnetron (ICM) sputtering can achieve thickness uniformity on both flat and curved optical surfaces.
There are a number of pre-clean methods available for physical vapor deposition, and each pre-clean method has its benefits.
Deposition method has a sizable impact on the grain size of a thin film. It's important to choose the right deposition method to yield the...
A PEM closed loop control system is well suited for high rate, transition mode reactive sputtering.
Optical monitoring is the control method of choice for precision optic manufacturers.
Plasma Emission Monitoring (PEM) is a closed loop control system for transition mode, high-rate reactive sputtering of metal oxides and nitrides.
Discussion of results from study of fill quality of micro-patterned arrays with thermally evaporated indium thin film.
For a substrate rack in single rotation it is theoretically possible to achieve perfect thickness uniformity simply by developing the correct...
The capabilities of plasma ion sources include high productivity, low cost of ownership, and more.
In the last 15-20 years the equipment used to deposit optical thin film coatings has changed dramatically.
Bipolar pulsed DC sputtering is a new technique for high rate reactive deposition of dielectric oxides on diverse types of substrates.
Sputtering has proven to be a useful method to apply thin films.
Co-sputtering has been used to fabricate equiatomic thin films of TiNi, a shape memory alloy, which form the basis of microactuators.
The combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectrophotometry of supported gold clusters of SiO2 reveals the importance of cluster...
The optical properties of bulk noble metals are due to interband transitions at shorter wavelengths and intraband absorbtion at longer wavelengths.
This work deals with the development of reactively sputtered fractal titanium nitride coatings for use in electrostimulation and recording electrodes.
The manufacture of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating design can often prove to be more difficult than anticipated.
All dielectric band pass filters typically consist of all dielectric mirrors made up of quarter-wave optical thick layers and half-wave thick...
Plasma -enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was used to fabricate multilayer anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) on spherical fiber couplers.
This EXCEL spreadsheet is an example of one method of extracting optical thin film constants from measured spectral data.
This is a follow up article to the first article in which we developed the mathematical tools to determine the optical properties of optical thin...
Physical vapor deposition is the most common technique used to deposit optical thin films for a large variety of applications.
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) offers a precise technique for measuring thin film properties.
During reactive evaporation, e.g. for optical applications, energy has to be introduced into the growing film, otherwise it will not adhere well...
Durable and dense dielectric optical stacks, deposited with the assist of a gridded, Kaufman-type ion source have been extensively reported upon.
HfO2 (hafnium oxide) is a common material used for manufacture of UV filters due to being transparent down to about 250 nm.
The emission distribution characteristics of an evaporation source can be used to define the correct geometry in the vacuum chamber for the...
ITO films have traditionally been deposited by sputtering on low temperature substrates and by evaporation on substrates heated to high temperatures.
Considerable data has been published on the benefits of ion assisted deposition (IAD) (1,2,3).
Pumping speed of the chambers is the major factor not directly controllable that affects the quality of the films that can be made using the ion...
There are a variety of optical coatings needed on laser bar facets to make them functional, as well as several different types of laser bar facet...
This paper discusses characterization of the ion produced by the plasma source and the properties of thin films produced using the plasma source for..
Ion bombardment is important in the growth of films and modification of surfaces; it leads to re-sputtering, knock-in effects, sub-plantation, etc.