White Papers

Film Characteristics

Optimizing Source Location For Control of Thickness Uniformity

Achieve perfect thickness uniformity through correct mask profile for the emission characteristic of the evaporation source. [Download]

Thickness Distribution of Evaporated Films

Using emission distribution characteristics to define the correct geometry in the vacuum chamber for uniform-thickness. [Download]

Ion-assisted Deposition

Performance of a Radio Frequency Plasma Ion Source

Characterization of a Plasma Ion Source and of Ion Assisted Deposited Optical Thin Films

Characterization of the ion and the properties of thin films produced using the plasma source for ion assisted deposition. [Download]

Dense Moisture Stable Titania and Silica Ion Assisted Deposited Using a Compact Cold Cathode Ion Source

Compact ion sources produce dense, moisture-stable films more than do larger, cold cathode ion sources. [Download]

Ion Bombardment Characteristics During Growth of Optical Films Using a Cold Cathode Ion Source

Such optical and mechanical behaviors as refractive index and stress are discussed using ion-assisted deposition. [Download]

Ion-Assisted Deposition of E-gun Evaporated ITO Films at Low Substrate Temperatures

Ion assisted deposition and the electrical and optical properties for ITO films deposited over a broad parameter space. [Download]

Ion-Assisted Deposition of Moisture Stable HfO 2 Thin-films

Parameters used to make moisture stable HfO2 in the UV-visible spectral region. [Download]

Measurement and Correlation of Ion Beam Current Density to Moisture Stability of Oxide Film Stacks Fabricated by Cold Cathode Ion Assisted Deposition

Report on the use of the cold cathode ion source at high energy levels to generate moisture stable thin film optical stacks. [Download]

The Effects of Pumping Speed on the Operation of a Cold Cathode Ion Source

Discuss effects on optical properties of TiO2 films using a cold cathode ion source at different pumping speeds. [Download]

Why Ion Assisted Depostition (IAD)?

Influences of optical properties of TiO2 films using a cold cathode ion source at different pumping speeds. [Download]

Monitoring

Transition Mode Reactive Sputtering by Plasma Emission Monitor Control

Uniformity and deposition rates of metal oxide thin film for optical application using Denton Vacuum’s PEM control system. [Download]

Considerations and Examples for Determining Precision of Indirect Optical Monitoring

Discussion of process choices and how they affect precision optics using an optical monitoring control system. [Download]

Optical Monitoring of Thin-films Using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

Results of spectroscopic ellipsometry used for in situ film thickness monitoring of the growth of single layer films. [Download]

Optical Coatings

Characterizing Optical Thin Films (I)

Discussion on how to take data from the spectral measurements of films and extract optical properties. [Download]

Characterizing Optical Thin Films (II)

Effects of inhomogeneity on spectral performance of optical thin films using routine spectral measurements. [Download]

PDF Instructions for Excel File Referenced in Paper

Offers a mathematical, formulaic method of extracting optical thin film constants from measured spectral data. [Download]

Excel File

Three Excel spreadsheets readers can use freely to help calculate optical thin film constants. [Download]

Design and Development of Optical Coatings on Laser Bar Facets

Achieving low reflectance on InP and GaAs laser facets and the optical measurements problems. [Download]

Design of Multi-Band Square Band Pass Filters

When cavity layers are made very thick, resulting in multiple pass bands within the quarter-wave stack rejection region. [Download]

Plasma Deposition of Anti-Reflective Coatings on Spherical Lenses

Two- and four-layer ARCs by PECVD, with emphasis on optical performance, film microstructure and in-situ process monitoring. [Download]

Stability and Repeatability of 2-Layer Anti-Reflection Coatings

Using an AR coating application, demonstrates the importance of co-developing the design and manufacturing process. [Download]

Process Characterizations

Development of Titanium Nitride Fractal Coatings for Cardiac and Neural Electrostimulation Electrodes

SVC 2014 TechCon Technical Program paper regarding coatings for pacemaker leads, neural stimulation and recording electrodes [Download]

Spectroellipsometric Characterization of Plasma-Deposited Au/SiO2 Nancomposite Films

Optical constants determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements using Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. [Download]

Substrate and Morphology Effects on Photoemission From Core-Levels in Gold Clusters

Investigation of CBE and line-width of gold clusters in the form of discontinuous films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. [Download]

The Characterization of TiNi Shape-Memory Actuated Microvalves

Equiatomic TiNi thin film SMAs fabricated using co-sputtering, and the stress evolution of TiNi films studied. [Download]

Sputtering

Contributing Factors in Cathode Placement for Confocal Sputtering

With cathodes positioned confocal to the substrate, the outer area of the substrate receives more coating material. [Download]

Bipolar Pulsed DC Sputtering of Optical Films

Asymmetrically pulsed DC sputtering as a viable alternative to evaporated coatings for some low volume applications. [Download]

System Components

Choosing a Chamber

Examination of how process issues tend to dictate component selection and chamber configuration. [Download]